I will update this page as new studies reach my medical journals (or the media, which is often sooner). Each reference begins with the standard way that an article is cited, followed by a brief synopsis. When the brief summary is from the journal, I put it in quotes.
“Route of Hormone Therapy Administration and Venous Thromboembolism”, Estrogen and Thromboembolism Risk (ESTHER) Study Group. Circulation 2007; 115:840-5. “This study confirms the findings of previous studies that oral, but not transdermal, estrogen increases the risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women.” – American Board og Obstetricians and Gynecologists Clinical Review, September-October 2008.
“Differential Effects of Oral versus Transdermal Estrogen Replacement Therapy on C-reactive Protein in Postmenopausal Women”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2003 April 16;41(8):1358-63. “In postmenopausal women, oral but not transdermal estradiol therapy increased C-reactive protein (CRP) by a first-pass hepatic effect. Because CRP is a powerful predictor of an adverse prognosis in otherwise healthy postmenopausal women, the route of administration may be an important consideration in minimizing the adverse effects of estrogen therapy on cardiovascular outcomes.”